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dc.contributor.authorAlarcón Vera, Antonio Luis 
dc.date.accessioned2018-05-07T15:17:21Z
dc.date.available2018-05-07T15:17:21Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.description.abstract[SPA] El presente trabajo se estructura en dos bloques diferenciados. En el primero de ellos, se estudia la nutrición hídrica y mineral de los cultivos sin suelo del sureste español, para poder desarrollar una aplicación informática que permita la gestión y programación de la fertirrigación de los cultivos sin suelo o hidropónicos. Para ello se efectúa una caracterización físico - química del comportamiento de los fertilizantes más difundidos en los procesos de fertirrigación tecnificada, se modela el consumo hídrico y la gestión del riego de los diferentes cultivos implicados bajo diferentes escenarios y calidades de agua de riego y se estudian las diferentes interacciones entre los componentes iónicos de las soluciones nutritivas aplicadas a los cultivos sin suelo. Con esa información y multitud de datos obtenidos de ensayos de campo, se desarrolla una aplicación informática para la gestión y programación de los cultivos sin suelo más extendidos (tomate, pepino, melón, pimiento, otros), en diferentes sustratos (lana de roca, perlita, fibra de coco, medio líquido, etc.), con o sin recirculación de lixiviados y bajo diferentes climas y casuísticas. Este programa permite, mediante análisis químicos periódicos, la gestión del riego y el abonado de los cultivos sin suelo para su programación en los actuales equipos automáticos de fertirrigación. Esto incluye la solución nutritiva a aplicar, la dosis riego, la cantidad y tipo de fertilizante a poner en cada tanque, el ratio de inyección en cada uno de los tanques de solución concentrada, las cantidades necesarias a aportar de ácido para el obtener el pH necesario, la CE final a programar, el porcentaje de drenaje a fijar, etc. Dado que el calcio como macronutriente tiene un comportamiento distinto al resto, que genera controversia entre los agricultores, y que sus necesidades, aportes y efectos, escapan incluso de la gestión efectuada por el programa, ya que dependen de multitud de factores de índole climática, genética y fisiológica, se decide profundizar más en su estudio. Para ello se elige el melón como cultivo típicamente de exportación, donde la nutrición cálcica tiene una enorme repercusión sobre la calidad final que llega al consumidor, y se estudian los niveles de calcio aportado, diferentes materiales de aporte incluyendo nuevos productos como quelatos de calcio, interacciones con otros iones, distribución en las diferentes partes de planta y fruto y las formas químicas bajo las que se encuentra, etc. En este sentido se constata que concentraciones de calcio de menos de 3 mM en la solución nutritiva, que representan una captación diaria neta de calcio de menos de 1 mM por planta a lo largo del ciclo de cultivo, son insuficientes y provocan síntomas de deficiencia en hojas y frutos. En hojas maduras predomina la fracción de Ca insoluble inorgánico, el Ca ligado es la forma minoritaria. En hojas jóvenes el Ca soluble suele ser la forma mayoritaria, mientras que el Ca insoluble orgánico es la minoritaria. Hay aproximadamente 10 veces más Ca total en hojas maduras que en jóvenes. Los niveles de calcio en las distintas fracciones de la planta siguen el orden siguiente: Hojas (Lámina > Pecíolos) > Zarcillos > Raíz > Ápices de crecimiento > Tallos > Flores > Frutos (Corteza > Pulpa > Jugo). Los tratamientos con Ca-EDTA presentan valores muy inferiores al resto y ni tan siquiera son capaces de producir fruta. No parece adecuado el uso de correctores comerciales de deficiencia cálcica a base de Ca-EDTA, ya que esta forma presenta una enorme estabilidad y dificulta la absorción y transporte del Ca en el interior de la planta. [ENG] The present work is structured in two distinct blocks. In the first one, we study the water and mineral nutrition of soilless crops in the southeast of Spain, in order to develop a computer application that allows the management and programming of the fertigation of soilless crops or hydroponics. For this, a physical - chemical characterization of the behavior of the most widespread fertilizers in the processes of technified fertigation is carried out, the water consumption and the irrigation management of the different crops involved under different scenarios and irrigation water qualities are modeled and studied the different interactions between the ionic components of nutrient solutions applied to soilless crops. With this information and multitude of data obtained from field trials, a computer application is developed for the management and programming of the most widespread soilless crops (tomato, cucumber, melon, pepper, others), in different substrates (rockwool, perlite, coconut fiber, liquid medium, etc.), with or without recirculation of drainages and under different climates and casuistics. This program allows, through periodic chemical analysis, the management of irrigation and the fertilization of the soilless crops for its programming in the current automatic equipment of fertigation. This includes the nutrient solution to be applied, the irrigation dose, the amount and type of fertilizer to be put in each tank, the injection ratio in each of the concentrated solution tanks, the quantities necessary to provide acid to obtain the ideal pH, the final EC to be programmed, the percentage of drainage to be set, etc. Given that calcium as a macronutrient has a different behavior from the rest, which generates controversy among farmers, and that their needs, supplies and effects, even escape the management carried out by the program, since they depend on a multitude of factors of climatic, genetic or physiological nature, it is decided to go deeper into its study. For this, melon is chosen as a typical export crop, where calcium nutrition has an enormous impact on the final quality that reaches the consumer, and are studied the levels of calcium supplied, different input materials including new products such as calcium chelates, interactions with other ions, distribution in the different parts of plant and fruit and the chemical forms under which it is found, etc. In this sense, calcium concentrations of less than 3 mM in the nutrient solution, representing a daily net calcium uptake of less than 1 mM per plant throughout the growing cycle, are found to be insufficient and cause symptoms of deficiency in leaves and fruits. In mature leaves predominates the inorganic insoluble Ca fraction, the Ca bound is the minority form. In young leaves the soluble Ca is usually the majority form, while the organic insoluble Ca is the minority. There are approximately 10 times more Ca total in mature leaves than in young ones. The calcium levels in the different fractions of the plant follow the following order: Leaves (Leaf > Petioles) > Tendrils > Root > Growth apices > Stems > Flowers > Fruits (Bark > Pulp > Juice). The treatments with Ca-EDTA present values much inferior to the rest and are not even able to produce fruit. It does not seem appropriate to use commercial correctors of calcium deficiency based on Ca-EDTA, since this form presents an enormous stability and makes difficult the absorption and transport of the Ca inside the plant.es_ES
dc.description.abstract[ENG] The present work is structured in two distinct blocks. In the first one, we study the water and mineral nutrition of soilless crops in the southeast of Spain, in order to develop a computer application that allows the management and programming of the fertigation of soilless crops or hydroponics. For this, a physical - chemical characterization of the behavior of the most widespread fertilizers in the processes of technified fertigation is carried out, the water consumption and the irrigation management of the different crops involved under different scenarios and irrigation water qualities are modeled and studied the different interactions between the ionic components of nutrient solutions applied to soilless crops. With this information and multitude of data obtained from field trials, a computer application is developed for the management and programming of the most widespread soilless crops (tomato, cucumber, melon, pepper, others), in different substrates (rockwool, perlite, coconut fiber, liquid medium, etc.), with or without recirculation of drainages and under different climates and casuistics. This program allows, through periodic chemical analysis, the management of irrigation and the fertilization of the soilless crops for its programming in the current automatic equipment of fertigation. This includes the nutrient solution to be applied, the irrigation dose, the amount and type of fertilizer to be put in each tank, the injection ratio in each of the concentrated solution tanks, the quantities necessary to provide acid to obtain the ideal pH, the final EC to be programmed, the percentage of drainage to be set, etc. Given that calcium as a macronutrient has a different behavior from the rest, which generates controversy among farmers, and that their needs, supplies and effects, even escape the management carried out by the program, since they depend on a multitude of factors of climatic, genetic or physiological nature, it is decided to go deeper into its study. For this, melon is chosen as a typical export crop, where calcium nutrition has an enormous impact on the final quality that reaches the consumer, and are studied the levels of calcium supplied, different input materials including new products such as calcium chelates, interactions with other ions, distribution in the different parts of plant and fruit and the chemical forms under which it is found, etc. In this sense, calcium concentrations of less than 3 mM in the nutrient solution, representing a daily net calcium uptake of less than 1 mM per plant throughout the growing cycle, are found to be insufficient and cause symptoms of deficiency in leaves and fruits. In mature leaves predominates the inorganic insoluble Ca fraction, the Ca bound is the minority form. In young leaves the soluble Ca is usually the majority form, while the organic insoluble Ca is the minority. There are approximately 10 times more Ca total in mature leaves than in young ones. The calcium levels in the different fractions of the plant follow the following order: Leaves (Leaf > Petioles) > Tendrils > Root > Growth apices > Stems > Flowers > Fruits (Bark > Pulp > Juice). The treatments with Ca-EDTA present values much inferior to the rest and are not even able to produce fruit. It does not seem appropriate to use commercial correctors of calcium deficiency based on Ca-EDTA, since this form presents an enormous stability and makes difficult the absorption and transport of the Ca inside the plant.es_ES
dc.formatapplication/pdfes_ES
dc.language.isospaes_ES
dc.publisherAntonio Luis Alarcón Veraes_ES
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/*
dc.title.alternativeProgramming of fertigation in soilless crops in Spanish southeast. Study of calcium nutritiones_ES
dc.titleProgramación de la fertirrigación en cultivos sin suelo en el sudeste español. Estudio de la nutrición cálcicaes_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesises_ES
dc.subject.otherEdafología y Química Agrícolaes_ES
dc.contributor.advisorGarcía Fernández, Gregorio 
dc.contributor.advisorMadrid Vicente, Ramón 
dc.date.submitted2017-12-21
dc.subjectNutrición vegetales_ES
dc.subjectQuímica del aguaes_ES
dc.subjectUso combinado de agua y fertilizanteses_ES
dc.subjectRiegoes_ES
dc.subjectCultivo hidropónicoes_ES
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10317/6859
dc.description.centroEscuela Internacional de Doctorado de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagenaes_ES
dc.contributor.departmentCiencia y Tecnología Agrariaes_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.31428/10317/6859
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccesses_ES
dc.date.embargoEndDate2018-12-21
dc.description.universityUniversidad Politécnica de Cartagenaes_ES
dc.subject.unesco3102.05 Riegoes_ES
dc.description.programadoctoradoPrograma de Doctorado en Técnicas Avanzadas en Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario por la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagenaes_ES


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