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dc.contributor.authorAlcolea Rubio, Luis Alberto 
dc.date.accessioned2016-04-22T12:30:45Z
dc.date.available2016-04-22T12:30:45Z
dc.date.issued2015-05
dc.description.abstract[SPA] El objetivo de esta tesis es contribuir a la interpretación de los factores geogénicos y antropogénicos, a escalas local (cuenca hidrográfica) y regional, que controlan la geodisponibilidad (solubilidad y movilidad) de Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb en la Sierra Minera de Cartagena – La Unión, así como evaluar la influencia del paisaje minero abandonado sobre el Campo de Cartagena y el Mar Menor. El período de estudio se extendió desde 2003 hasta 2012. Se recogieron 920 muestras de agua de lluvia en las 15 estaciones pluviométricas repartidas por la gran llanura de 1600 km2 que constituye el Campo de Cartagena. Además, el estudio de campo se complementó con 179 muestras de agua superficial recogidas en 13 ramblas, 127 muestras de agua subterránea recogidas en 5 manantiales, 16 muestras de agua de mar recogidas en 8 desembocaduras de ramblas, 15 especímenes de eflorescencias de sulfatos, 7 tipos de residuos mineros y 23 tipos de rocas. La evaluación de tal variedad de muestras ayudó a comprender los mecanismos que hacen geodisponibles estos metales en la Sierra Minera de Cartagena – La Unión. Dichos elementos traza se estudiaron en su contexto geológico, teniendo en cuenta sus ciclos geoquímicos, los diferentes tipos de residuos minero-metalúrgicos presentes en esta zona minera abandonada y la esfera de influencia hacia las áreas circundantes. La geodisponibilidad de los elementos traza depende de la especiación de sus fases solubles, la cual se ve afectada por parámetros geoquímicos, hidrogeológicos, biológicos y antropogénicos (actividades minera, agrícola e industrial). El conocimiento de la geodisponibilidad de los metales en el suelo, su mecanismo de transferencia a la biota y el riesgo para la salud pública, continúan siendo cuestiones clave a abordar. La presente tesis doctoral trata de evaluar estos problemas con ayuda de las técnicas instrumentales más avanzadas. Las muestras líquidas se evaluaron mediante la determinación del pH, Conductividad Eléctrica (CE), iones mayoritarios por Cromatografía Iónica (CI) y los metales de interés por Espectrometría de Masas de Plasma Acoplado Inductivamente (EM–PAI). La caracterización fisicoquímica de las muestras sólidas se llevó a cabo mediante observación estereomicroscópica, determinación de su estructura mediante Difracción de Rayos X (DRX), análisis composicional por espectrometría de Fluorescencia de Rayos X por Dispersión de Longitud de onda (FRXDL), análisis CHN y Análisis TermoGravimétrico acoplado a Espectrometría de Masas (ATG–EM). Además, sobre las muestras sólidas se realizó el test de lixiviado DIN 38414-S4, con el fin de valorar el riesgo y movilidad potencial de los diferentes analitos. En las muestras de lixiviado se midió el pH, CE, los iones mayoritarios y los metales Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb y Pb. Los resultados han confirmado que la geodisponibilidad de los metales traza en la Sierra Minera está regulada por la meteorización fisicoquímica de los residuos minero-metalúrgicos, así como por la oxidación de los sulfuros metálicos asociados a los yacimientos de Pb-Zn. Respecto a los mecanismo de transporte, dispersión y deposición de Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd y Pb, el balance de masas de metales traza geodisponibles en el Mar Menor reveló que la erosión eólica transfirió el 81 % de la entrada total de metales provenientes de la Sierra Minera, las aguas subterráneas contribuyeron en un 16 % y la escorrentía superficial en un 3 %. Todo ello demostró que la dispersión de estos contaminantes NO está controlada por las aguas continentales (escorrentía superficial y agua subterránea). [ENG] The aim of this thesis was to contribute to the interpretation of the geogenic and anthropogenic factors, at local (hydrographic basin) and regional levels, that control the geoavailability (solubility and mobility) of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the Sierra Minera de Cartagena – La Unión, as well as to evaluate the influence of the abandoned mining landscape on the Campo de Cartagena and Mar Menor lagoon. The study period extended from 2003 to 2012. Across the large plain of 1600 km2 that forms the Campo de Cartagena, 15 weather stations were monitored to collect 920 rainwater samples. In addition, 179 surface runoff water samples were gathered in 13 ephemeral watercourses, 127 springwater samples in 5 springs, 16 seawater samples in 8 wadi outlets, 15 efflorescent sulfate salts, 7 types of mine wastes, and 23 types of parent materials. The assessment of such variety of specimens helped to understand the mechanisms that make Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb geoavailable in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena – La Unión. For this purpose, these trace elements were studied in the geological context, taking into account their geochemical cycles, the different types of mining and metallurgical wastes present in the derelict mining site, and the sphere of influence to the bordering areas. Geoavailability of trace elements depends on the speciation of its soluble phases, which is affected by geochemical, hydrogeological, biological, and anthropogenic (mining, agricultural, and industrial activities) parameters. Knowledge of the geoavailability of metals in soils, its transfer mechanism to plants and other organisms, as well as the risk to public health remain key issues. This doctoral thesis wishes to tackle these problems with the most advanced instrumental techniques. Liquid samples were evaluated through the determination of pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), major ions by Ion Chromatography (IC), and the metals of interest by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP–MS). The physico-chemical characterization of the solid samples involved its stereo microscopic observation, the determination of the structure by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), the compositional analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF), CHN analysis, and ThermoGravimetric analysis coupled to Mass Spectrometry (TG–MS). Furthermore, the leaching test DIN 38414-S4 was performed over the solid specimens to appreciate the hazard and potential mobility of the different analytes. pH, EC, major ions and several metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb), were measured in the leachate samples. The results have confirmed that geoavailability of trace metals in the Sierra Minera is governed by physico-chemical weathering of mining and metallurgical wastes, as well as by the oxidation of metallic sulfides associated to the Pb-Zn ores. Regarding the transport, dispersion, and deposition mechanisms of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb, the geoavailable trace-metal mass balance for Mar Menor lagoon disclosed that Aeolian erosion transfered 81% of the overall input of metal pollutants coming from the Sierra Minera, groundwater input contributed 16%, and watershed stream input only represented 3%. This proved that scattering of those trace elements is NOT controlled by continental water bodies (surface runoff and groundwater).es_ES
dc.description.abstract[ENG] The aim of this thesis was to contribute to the interpretation of the geogenic and anthropogenic factors, at local (hydrographic basin) and regional levels, that control the geoavailability (solubility and mobility) of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the Sierra Minera de Cartagena – La Unión, as well as to evaluate the influence of the abandoned mining landscape on the Campo de Cartagena and Mar Menor lagoon. The study period extended from 2003 to 2012. Across the large plain of 1600 km2 that forms the Campo de Cartagena, 15 weather stations were monitored to collect 920 rainwater samples. In addition, 179 surface runoff water samples were gathered in 13 ephemeral watercourses, 127 springwater samples in 5 springs, 16 seawater samples in 8 wadi outlets, 15 efflorescent sulfate salts, 7 types of mine wastes, and 23 types of parent materials. The assessment of such variety of specimens helped to understand the mechanisms that make Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb geoavailable in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena – La Unión. For this purpose, these trace elements were studied in the geological context, taking into account their geochemical cycles, the different types of mining and metallurgical wastes present in the derelict mining site, and the sphere of influence to the bordering areas. Geoavailability of trace elements depends on the speciation of its soluble phases, which is affected by geochemical, hydrogeological, biological, and anthropogenic (mining, agricultural, and industrial activities) parameters. Knowledge of the geoavailability of metals in soils, its transfer mechanism to plants and other organisms, as well as the risk to public health remain key issues. This doctoral thesis wishes to tackle these problems with the most advanced instrumental techniques. Liquid samples were evaluated through the determination of pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), major ions by Ion Chromatography (IC), and the metals of interest by Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP–MS). The physico-chemical characterization of the solid samples involved its stereo microscopic observation, the determination of the structure by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), the compositional analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF), CHN analysis, and ThermoGravimetric analysis coupled to Mass Spectrometry (TG–MS). Furthermore, the leaching test DIN 38414-S4 was performed over the solid specimens to appreciate the hazard and potential mobility of the different analytes. pH, EC, major ions and several metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb), were measured in the leachate samples. The results have confirmed that geoavailability of trace metals in the Sierra Minera is governed by physico-chemical weathering of mining and metallurgical wastes, as well as by the oxidation of metallic sulfides associated to the Pb-Zn ores. Regarding the transport, dispersion, and deposition mechanisms of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb, the geoavailable trace-metal mass balance for Mar Menor lagoon disclosed that Aeolian erosion transfered 81% of the overall input of metal pollutants coming from the Sierra Minera, groundwater input contributed 16%, and watershed stream input only represented 3%. This proved that scattering of those trace elements is NOT controlled by continental water bodies (surface runoff and groundwater).es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe development of this thesis has been possible with the Research Funding source of Seneca Foundation of Murcia, Spain, Project PB/44/FS/2002. The author gratefully acknowledges the infrastructural support of the Assistance Service for Technological Research (Servicio de Apoyo a la Investigación Tecnológica, SAIT) of the Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (Spain), where all the experimental analyses were performed.es_ES
dc.formatapplication/pdfes_ES
dc.language.isospaes_ES
dc.publisherLuis Alberto Alcolea Rubioes_ES
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/*
dc.title.alternativeReología de los Residuos Post-Flotación de Pb-Zn en la Sierra de Cartagena: La Unión (SE España)es_ES
dc.titleGeoavailability of Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the Sierra de Cartagena – La Unión (SE Spain)es_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesises_ES
dc.subject.otherIngeniería Químicaes_ES
dc.contributor.advisorRodríguez Pacheco, Roberto Lorenzo 
dc.contributor.advisorIbarra Berrocal, Isidro Jesús 
dc.date.submitted2015-07-21
dc.subjectDistribución de oligoelementoses_ES
dc.subjectGeología ambientales_ES
dc.subjectHidrogeologíaes_ES
dc.subjectContaminación atmosféricaes_ES
dc.subjectSierra Cartagena-La Uniónes_ES
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10317/5344
dc.contributor.departmentIngeniería Minera, Geológica y Cartográficaes_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.31428/10317/5344
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccesses
dc.relation.projectIDProyecto PB/44/FS/2002es_ES
dc.description.universityUniversidad Politécnica de Cartagenaes_ES
dc.subject.unesco2506.05 Hidrogeologíaes_ES
dc.subject.unesco2506.04 Geología Ambientales_ES
dc.subject.unesco2509.02 Contaminación Atmosféricaes_ES
dc.contributor.funderes_ES


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