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dc.contributor.authorPagán Rubio, Elisa 
dc.date.accessioned2012-09-17T11:43:07Z
dc.date.available2012-09-17T11:43:07Z
dc.date.issued2012-02
dc.description.abstract[SPA] Con el objetivo de optimizar el manejo del riego en mandarino y almendro, dos cultivos leñosos relevantes en la Región de Murcia, se desarrollaron dos ensayos, uno durante tres años en una explotación comercial de mandarinos cv. Fortune regados con una mezcla de agua procedente del trasvase Tajo-Segura y de pozo, cuya conductividad eléctrica (CE25ºC) varió en función de la disponibilidad de agua del trasvase, alcanzándose valores constantes ligeramente por encima de 4 dS m-1 durante el segundo y tercer año. El otro, durante dos años, en almendros cv. Marta regados con agua del trasvase Tajo-Segura, sin problemas de salinidad. En mandarino, se delimitó de forma precisa con la ayuda de los dendrómetros la aplicación del déficit hídrico durante la fase II del crecimiento del fruto, de modo que la restitución del riego a niveles del control coincidiría con el inicio de la ralentización del crecimiento del tronco, prolongándose el déficit hídrico durante los meses de verano. La salinidad del agua de riego en los dos últimos años no tuvo un efecto negativo en las producciones obtenidas en el tratamiento control (59,5 kg arbol-1), en cambio, sí redujo su crecimiento vegetativo. El tratamiento RDC (regado al 65 y al 50% del control en la primera (2005-06) y las dos últimas campañas (2006-08), respectivamente, y al 80% en la fase III) mantuvo niveles de producción similares a los del control en los dos primeros años, con ahorros de agua del 8 y 36%, sin embargo, el tercer año se redujo un 63%, debido a la disminución del número de frutos por árbol, mostrándose la interacción negativa del riego deficitario controlado y la salinidad. En almendro se observó la posibilidad de programar el riego en base a la intensidad de señal (IS) procedente de la MCD. La programación realizada cada 3 días consiguió ajustar mejor IS al valor deseado, con variaciones en los volúmenes de agua inferiores a los realizados cuando el programa se ajustó semanalmente. Por otro lado, se ha visto la necesidad de prestar especial atención al cambiar el valor umbral de IS, sobre todo durante la fase V, donde una vez restituido el riego, la respuesta adaptativa del cultivo al estrés hídrico propició valores de crecimiento muy superiores al control. La programación del riego deficitario controlado basado en la dendrometría resultó ventajosa sobre la tradicional al conseguir un control más idóneo del estado hídrico de la planta que penalice en menor medida el crecimiento vegetativo, y por consiguiente una repercusión menos negativa en las cosechas siguientes. Entre los indicadores del estado hídrico de la planta estudiados en ambos cultivos (¿t, TCD, MCD), la máxima contracción diaria del diámetro de tronco (MCD) resultó el más idóneo en el establecimiento de líneas de referencia para la programación del riego debido a su respuesta lineal y buena correlación con la temperatura (mandarino, r2>0,7***) y el déficit de presión de vapor (almendro, r2>0,8***). En el mandarino, la comparación de las correlaciones de los dos años de estudio (2005 y 2006) no mostró diferencias entre ellas a pesar del incremento de salinidad y la disminución en la carga productiva que se produjo en el segundo año, además, se observó un mejor valor predictivo de las líneas obtenidas con valores del periodo comprendido entre marzo y octubre (Fases I y II del crecimiento del tronco), que coinciden con el periodo de máximos requerimientos hídricos del cultivo. Del mismo modo, el estudio por fases fenológicas en almendro mostró diferencias significativas entre las líneas de referencia de los dos años de estudio (2006 y 2007) en el periodo correspondiente a las fases II-III, pero no entre este periodo y las siguientes fases. Por lo que la línea de referencia obtenida en este periodo podría ser utilizada para la programación del riego en el resto del ciclo. [ENG]The overall aim of this Doctoral Thesis was to optimize irrigation management in mandarin and almond trees, two relevant fruit trees in the Region of Murcia, according to plant-based water indicators. Two tests were developed for this purpose: i) another one for three years in a commercial orchard of mandarin cv. 'Fortune' and ii) other one, for two years in almond cv. 'Marta'. The mandarin trees were watered with a mixture of water from the Tajo-Segura transfer and from well, whose electrical conductivity (EC25°C) varied depending on the availability of water transfer, reaching constant values slightly higher than 4 dS m-1 during the second and third year of testing. Meanwhile the almond trees were irrigated with water from the Tajo-Segura transfer, without salinity problems. In the mandarin experiment four irrigation treatments were compared: i) Control (CTL), irrigated at 100% ETc, applying a leaching requirements of 33% from the second year. ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), watered as CTL except for phase I and beginning of the phase II of the fruit growth where it was irrigated at 65 and 50% of CTL in the first (2005-06) and the last two seasons (2006-08) respectively, and 80% in phase III. iii) RDI50, watered to 50% of RDI during the deficit period in 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasons and the rest of season like CTL. iv) FARM, scheduled by the farmer, who applied by about 50% of CTL during phases I and II and watered over CTL (170-200% CTL) from the end of phase II until the end of the irrigation season. The length of the less sensitive period to the water deficit in the phase II of the fruit growth was delimited by LVDT sensors in a precise way. So that the restitution of the irrigation at control levels coincided with the start of slowing trunk growth, extending the water deficit during the summer months. The salinity of the irrigation water over the last two years did not have a negative effect on the yields obtained in CTL (59.5 kg tree-1), however, it reduced its vegetative growth. RDI50 and FARM yields decreased in the second and third year of study. RDI maintained similar yield levels than CTL in the two first harvests, with water savings of 8 and 36%. However, in the third year, the obtained yield was 37% of CTL, due to the decreasing in crop load, showing a negative interaction between deficit irrigation and salinity. In the almond experiment four irrigation treatments were compared: i) Control (CTL), irrigated at 110% ETc in order to avoid limiting conditions of soil water; ii) traditional regulated deficit irrigation (RDIt), irrigated at 100% ETc, except during phase IV (≈ June-mid August) when trees received 30% ETc; iii) continuous deficit irrigation based on MDS (RDd), irrigated to maintain the signal intensity (SI = MDSRDd / MDSCTL) around 1.1 throughout the irrigation season and iv) deficit irrigation based on MDS (RDCd), irrigated to maintain SI (MDSRDCd / MDSCTL) between 1 and 1.1, except for phase IV, which was 1.4. The main result in this assay was the ability to schedule irrigation in almond based on SI. When scheduling took place every 3 days it got better adjusted to the desired SI, with minor variations in the water supplied, than the results obtained when the program was adjusted once a week. On the other hand, it has been seen the need to pay special attention when changing the threshold value of SI as observed in RDCd, specially during phase V, where once irrigation was restored, the adaptive response of the crop to water stress led to values of growth much higher than those reached in control. The regulated deficit irrigation scheduling based on LVDT sensors (RDCd) proved advantages over the traditional (RDCt) to get better plant water status which led to increased vegetative growth. So it had a less negative impact in the next year's harvest. Above all indicators of plant water status studied in both crops (Ψstem, TGR, MDS), the maximum daily shrinkage of stem diameter (MDS) was the most suitable in establishing baselines for irrigation scheduling because of its linear response and good correlation with temperature (mandarin, r2 > 0.7***) and vapor pressure deficit (almond, r2 > 0.8***). In mandarin, the comparison of the correlations of the two-years study (2005 and 2006) showed no difference between them, in spite of the fact that, salinity was increased and crop load was decreased during the second year. In addition to this, it was recorded the highest predictive value of baseline values obtained from March to October (phases I and II of trunk growth), period of maximum crop water requirements. In the same way, the study in almond by phenological phases showed significant differences between the baselines of the two-year study (2006 and 2007) in the period corresponding to phases II-III, but not between this period and the following phases. So, the obtained baseline in this period could be used for irrigation scheduling during the rest of the season.es_ES
dc.description.abstract[ENG] The overall aim of this Doctoral Thesis was to optimize irrigation management in mandarin and almond trees, two relevant fruit trees in the Region of Murcia, according to plant-based water indicators. Two tests were developed for this purpose: i) another one for three years in a commercial orchard of mandarin cv. 'Fortune' and ii) other one, for two years in almond cv. 'Marta'. The mandarin trees were watered with a mixture of water from the Tajo-Segura transfer and from well, whose electrical conductivity (EC25°C) varied depending on the availability of water transfer, reaching constant values slightly higher than 4 dS m-1 during the second and third year of testing. Meanwhile the almond trees were irrigated with water from the Tajo-Segura transfer, without salinity problems. In the mandarin experiment four irrigation treatments were compared: i) Control (CTL), irrigated at 100% ETc, applying a leaching requirements of 33% from the second year. ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), watered as CTL except for phase I and beginning of the phase II of the fruit growth where it was irrigated at 65 and 50% of CTL in the first (2005-06) and the last two seasons (2006-08) respectively, and 80% in phase III. iii) RDI50, watered to 50% of RDI during the deficit period in 2006-07 and 2007-08 seasons and the rest of season like CTL. iv) FARM, scheduled by the farmer, who applied by about 50% of CTL during phases I and II and watered over CTL (170-200% CTL) from the end of phase II until the end of the irrigation season. The length of the less sensitive period to the water deficit in the phase II of the fruit growth was delimited by LVDT sensors in a precise way. So that the restitution of the irrigation at control levels coincided with the start of slowing trunk growth, extending the water deficit during the summer months. The salinity of the irrigation water over the last two years did not have a negative effect on the yields obtained in CTL (59.5 kg tree-1), however, it reduced its vegetative growth. RDI50 and FARM yields decreased in the second and third year of study. RDI maintained similar yield levels than CTL in the two first harvests, with water savings of 8 and 36%. However, in the third year, the obtained yield was 37% of CTL, due to the decreasing in crop load, showing a negative interaction between deficit irrigation and salinity. In the almond experiment four irrigation treatments were compared: i) Control (CTL), irrigated at 110% ETc in order to avoid limiting conditions of soil water; ii) traditional regulated deficit irrigation (RDIt), irrigated at 100% ETc, except during phase IV (≈ June-mid August) when trees received 30% ETc; iii) continuous deficit irrigation based on MDS (RDd), irrigated to maintain the signal intensity (SI = MDSRDd / MDSCTL) around 1.1 throughout the irrigation season and iv) deficit irrigation based on MDS (RDCd), irrigated to maintain SI (MDSRDCd / MDSCTL) between 1 and 1.1, except for phase IV, which was 1.4. The main result in this assay was the ability to schedule irrigation in almond based on SI. When scheduling took place every 3 days it got better adjusted to the desired SI, with minor variations in the water supplied, than the results obtained when the program was adjusted once a week. On the other hand, it has been seen the need to pay special attention when changing the threshold value of SI as observed in RDCd, specially during phase V, where once irrigation was restored, the adaptive response of the crop to water stress led to values of growth much higher than those reached in control. The regulated deficit irrigation scheduling based on LVDT sensors (RDCd) proved advantages over the traditional (RDCt) to get better plant water status which led to increased vegetative growth. So it had a less negative impact in the next year's harvest. Above all indicators of plant water status studied in both crops (Ψstem, TGR, MDS), the maximum daily shrinkage of stem diameter (MDS) was the most suitable in establishing baselines for irrigation scheduling because of its linear response and good correlation with temperature (mandarin, r2 > 0.7***) and vapor pressure deficit (almond, r2 > 0.8***). In mandarin, the comparison of the correlations of the two-years study (2005 and 2006) showed no difference between them, in spite of the fact that, salinity was increased and crop load was decreased during the second year. In addition to this, it was recorded the highest predictive value of baseline values obtained from March to October (phases I and II of trunk growth), period of maximum crop water requirements. In the same way, the study in almond by phenological phases showed significant differences between the baselines of the two-year study (2006 and 2007) in the period corresponding to phases II-III, but not between this period and the following phases. So, the obtained baseline in this period could be used for irrigation scheduling during the rest of the season.en
dc.formatapplication/pdfes_ES
dc.language.isospaes_ES
dc.publisherElisa Pagán Rubioes_ES
dc.rightsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/*
dc.titleUso de indicadores del estado hídrico de la planta para la optimización del riego en cultivos leñososes_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesises_ES
dc.contributor.advisorPérez Pastor, Alejandro 
dc.contributor.advisorDomingo Miguel, Rafael 
dc.date.submitted2012-05-31
dc.subjectManejo del riegoes_ES
dc.subjectRiegoes_ES
dc.subjectMandarinoses_ES
dc.subjectAlmendroses_ES
dc.subjectCultivos leñososes_ES
dc.subjectProducción de cultivoses_ES
dc.subjectOptimize irrigation managementes_ES
dc.subjectMandarin treees_ES
dc.subjectAlmond treees_ES
dc.subjectIrrigationes_ES
dc.subjectWater deficites_ES
dc.subjectDeficit irrigationes_ES
dc.subjectFruit treeses_ES
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10317/2764
dc.contributor.departmentProducción Vegetales_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.31428/10317/2764
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccesses
dc.description.universityUniversidad Politécnica de Cartagenaes_ES
dc.description.programadoctoradoPrograma de doctorado en Técnicas Avanzadas en Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentarioes_ES


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